First International Climate Change Agreement

The first meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, at the same time as the 11th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11). See the UN climate change conference. The World Bank (2010) [120] stated that the Kyoto Protocol had had little impact on controlling global emissions growth. The treaty was negotiated in 1997, but by 2006 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 24%. [121] The World Bank (2010) also stated that the treaty had provided only limited financial assistance to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change. [120] Article 3, paragraph 1 of the Convention[9] stipulates that the parties must act to protect the climate system on the basis of “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” and that the contracting parties of developed countries should “take the lead” in the fight against climate change. Under Article 4, all parties are generally committed to addressing climate change, for example by adapting to it and adapting to the potential effects of climate change. [10] Article 4, paragraph 7, provides: [11] The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty on climate change that was negotiated and signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNFPA) from 3 to 14 June 1992 in Rio de Janeiro. It established a secretariat based in Bonn and came into force on 21 March 1994. [1] The Kyoto Protocol, signed in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first extension of the UNFCCC.

It was replaced by the Paris Agreement, which came into force in 2016. [2] Starting in 2020, the UNFCCC has 197 signatories. Its supreme decision-making body, the Conference of the Parties (COP), meets annually to assess progress in the fight against climate change. [3] A second commitment period was agreed in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol, during which 37 countries have binding targets: Australia, the European Union (and its 28 Member States), Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine have stated that they cannot withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol or that they cannot implement the amendment with the objectives of the second round. [9] Japan, New Zealand and Russia participated in the first round of Kyoto, but did not meet new targets during the second commitment period.

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