Rose AK (2000) A Market? The impact of common currencies on international trade. Econ Policy 15:7-46 On the other hand, ATRs also have features that could in turn reduce the volatility of growth. First, domestic companies with ARR have access to a larger market and could therefore face the demand for new products that could increase their production base. Second, better political coordination within an ATR – the prevalence of a formal international agreement ensures that the external enforcement mechanism set up by an ATR to overcome domestic political pressure – also promotes the implementation of sound macroeconomic policies that lead to more stable growth. Haddad et al. (2010) point out that the disciplined nature of international competition and the prevalence of formal international treaties could discourage domestic policy errors, thereby reducing the volatility of growth (Cadot et al. 2009, considering that an ATR significantly reduces the volatility of barriers to agricultural trade through its engagement effects). Finally, ATTs can further reduce the volatility of growth by reducing the likelihood of conflict, as it provides a political forum to facilitate dispute resolution (Martin et al. 2012). Mordonu, A. (2006). Measure of trade reorientation – the case of Russian exports in the context of EU enlargement. Working papers of the Faculty of Economics and Business Management, University of Gant, Belgium 06/394, University of Gant, Faculty of Economics and Business Management The impact of regional trade agreements (RTA) on foreign direct investment (FDI) depends on both the origin and type of foreign direct investment.
To assess the different impacts of ATRs, I distinguish the different types of foreign direct investment using data on the sales objectives of multinational subsidiaries (MNEs), while working on the endogenous of RTA training. In line with the NSM theory, I note that RTAs reduce horizontal diins from intra-RTA countries and increase the export platform and overall FDI of non-RTA countries. In addition, the overall effects of RTA are positive for extra-RTA FDI, but are not consistent for INTRA-RTA-DI. The results also support the impact of economies of scale in integrated markets on the induction of extra-RTA FDI. Our empirical results confirm that ATRs are in fact associated with less volatility in growth. We also note that partial preferential trade agreements, which are generally flatter agreements, do not have a significant impact on growth volatility, unlike free trade zones and customs union unions. This reinforces the idea that the depth of regional integration is important. In addition, our results support the political credibility channel. A country with weak institutions, ensuring that its trade policy is conducted through a credible international treaty, is likely to have a more credible trade policy, thereby reducing uncertainty.
Particularly in the case of agreements involving North-South partners, the effects on reducing growth volatility in developing countries are most pronounced. This return of the RTA is a abandonment of the 1980s, when they were seen as a threat to the multilateral trading system and as the second best choice for broader trade liberalization. Although RTAs create trade, they also divert it by excluding countries from trade agreements and resulting in loss of well-being. As multilateral trade negotiations under the WTO – particularly since the start of the Doha Round – have stalled, RTAs are increasingly seen as a substitute for broader trade liberalization, not least because they are easier to negotiate and implement. In addition, the RTA could bring additional benefits compared to any liberalization, such as the . B less volatility, but this factor has attracted less attention in literature and political debate.