March 18-28, 2013: The second CAW negotiating conference will take place. A final text of the treaty has been agreed. The treaty is blocked by Iran, North Korea and Syria for an amicable agreement. A group of 90 countries, including the United States, passed the treaty at the United Nations General Assembly. I had the opportunity to serve in the Mexican delegation throughout the negotiation process, starting with the negotiation and adoption of General Assembly Resolution 64/48 in 2009 and until the adoption of the treaty in 2013. I can attest to the hard work and effort that has been both Amb. Garcia Moritén and Amb. Woolcott, along with all delegations, need to unite on a subject that has an intrinsic tendency to polarize and that touches on issues that are very sensitive to States, including the concern for their own security and stability. From a Mexican perspective, it is a particularly important legal instrument in the face of the major challenges and threats posed by the illegal arms trade, which flows mainly from the U.S. border to Mexico and fuels organized crime. To illustrate this, the negotiations coincided with the revelation of the controversial U.S. fast and furious operation, in which the Phoenix Field division of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) authorized illegal arms sales to track down alleged sellers and buyers linked to Mexican drug cartels.
Before the CAW came into force on December 24, 2014, there were more international laws in the world that regulate the banana trade than the arms trade. For many years, civil society has recognized this gap and called for comprehensive action. For example, in 1997, a group of 19 leading personalities and institutions, including Dr. Oscar Arias Sénchez, former President of Costa Rica, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize; Tutu Desmond; José Ramos Horta and Amnesty International – The International Code of Conduct on Arms Transfers has been launched. This initiative went to the United Nations a few years later through the Costa Rica Permanent Mission in New York. Each State Party maintains, in accordance with its legislation and national provisions, a national register of the granting of expert authorisation or the effective export of conventional weapons under Article 2.1 for some 15 years. The United States is the world`s largest exporter of weapons. Arms sales are 58% higher than those of Russia, the world`s second largest exporter. The contract, known as the TCA, has been in effect since late 2014. The United States signed the agreement in 2013, but did not ratify it. The contract was officially signed by all New York States on June 3, 2013.
 It came into force on 24 December 2014, 90 days after the date of the 50th ratification.  It requires states to monitor their arms exports and ensure that their arms sales do not violate existing arms embargoes. On April 26, U.S. President Donald Trump announced the U.S. withdrawal from the ATT, announcing that the treaty had threatened U.S. states with decisions on arms exports. Many arms control experts have found the Trump administration`s justification to be wrong. The United States signed the treaty in 2013, but never ratified it.
“… I am both proud and deeply relieved that when I write these words in October 2014, we have withstood adversity. We made history. The Arms Trade Treaty was adopted by a large majority by the UN General Assembly on 2 April 2013. (…) Looking back on our history of violence, we have taken a powerful step towards peace. For the first time in history, a legally binding instrument has established a common legal framework for the international transfer of conventional weapons, creating universal legal standards for the arms trade in one of the few areas of world trade that had hitheramed out of control.